I’ve been doing a few talks recently – most recently at the somewhat confused OKCon (Open Knowledge) Conference. The audience was extremely diverse and so I tried to not only talk about what we’ve done but also introduce the concept of Linked Data and explain what it is.
Linked Data is a grassroots project to use web technologies to expose data on the web. It is for many people synonymous with the semantic web – and while this isn’t quite true. It does, as far as I’m concerned, represent a very large subset of the semantic web project. Interestingly, it can also be thought of as the ‘the web done right’, the web as it was originally designed to be.
But what is it?
Well it can be described with 4 simple rules.
1. Use URIs to identify things not only documents
The web was designed to be a web of things with documents making assertions about those real-world things. Just as a passport or driving license, in the real world, can be thought of as providing an identifier for a person making an assertion about who they are, so URIs can be thought of as providing identifiers for people, concepts or things on the web.
Minting URIs for things rather than pages helps make the web more human literate because it means we are identifying those things that people care about.
2. Use HTTP URIs – they are globally unique and anyone can dereference them
The beauty of the web is its ubiquitous nature – it is decentralised and able to function on any platform. This is because of TimBL’s key invention the HTTP URI.
URI’s are globally unique, open to all and decentralised. Don’t go using DOI or any other identifier – on the web all you need is an HTTP URI.
3. Provide useful information [in RDF] when someone looks up a URI
And obviously you need to provide some information at that URI. When people dereference it you need to give them some data – ideally as RDF as well as HTML. Providing the data as RDF means that machines can process that information for people to use. Making it more useful.
4. Include links to other URIs to let people discover related information
And of course you also need to provide links to other resources so people can continue their journey, and that means contextual links to other resources elsewhere on the web, not just your site.
And that’s it.
Pretty simple really and other than the RDF bit, I would argue that these principles should be followed for any website – they just make sense.
Before the Web people still networked their computers – but to access those computers you needed to know about the network, the routing and the computers themselves.
For those in their late 30s you’ll probably remember the film War Games – because this was written before the Web had been invented David and Jennifer the two ‘hackers’ had to find and connect directly to each computer; they had to know about the computer’s location.
The joy of the web is that it adds a level of abstraction – freeing you from the networking, routing and server location – it lets you focus on the document.
Following the principles of Linked Data allows us to add a further level of abstraction – freeing us from the document and letting us focus on the things, people and stuff that matters to people. It helps us design a system that is more human literate, and more useful.
This is possible because we are identifying real world stuff and the relationships between them.
Free information from data silos
Of course there are other ways of achieving this – lots of sites now provide APIs which is good just not great. Each of those APIs tend to be proprietary and specific to the site. As a result there’s an overhead every time someone wants to add that data source.
These APIs give you access to the silo – but the silo still remains. Using RDF and Linked Data means there is a generic method to access data on the web.
What are we doing at the BBC?
First up it’s worth pointing out the obvious: the BBC is a big place and so it would be wrong to assume that everything we’re doing online is following these principles. But there’s quite a lot of stuff going on that does.
We do have – BBC’s programme support, music discovery and, soon, natural history content all adopting these principles. In other words persistent HTTP URIs that can be dereferenced to HTML, RDF, JSON and mobile views for programmes, artists, species and habitats.
We want HTTP URIs for every concept, not HTML webpage – an individual page is made up of multiple resource, multiple concepts. So for example an artist page transcludes the resource ‘/:artist/news’ and ‘/:artist/reviews’ – but those resources also have their own URIs. If they didn’t they wouldn’t be on the web.
Also because there’s only one web we only have one URI for a resource but a number of different representation for that resource. So the URI for the proggramme ‘Nature’s Great Events’ is:
Through content negotiation we will able to server an HTML, RDF, or mobile document to represent that programme.
We then need to link all of this stuff up within the BBC. So that, for example, you can go from a tracklist on an episode page of Jo Whiley on the Radio 1 site to the U2 artist page and then from there to all episodes of Chris Evans which have played U2. Or from an episode of Nature’s Great Events to the page about Brown Bears to all BBC TV programmes about Brown Bears.
But obviously the BBC is only one corner of the web. So we also need to link with the rest of the web.
Because we’re now thinking on a webscale we’ve started to think about the web as a CMS.
Where URIs already exist to represent that concept we are using it rather than minting our own. The new music site transcludes and links back to Wikipedia to provide biographical information about an artist. Rather than minting our own URI for artist biographic info we use Wikipedia’s.
Likewise when we want to add music metadata to the music site we add MusicBrainz.
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